The Aryan Dravidian Divide
The struggle between Sanskrit and Tamil which started during the times of Tamil grammarian Tholkappiyar [865 B.C] triggered a grammatical rule to eschew Sanskrit letters. This rule enunciated by Tholkappiyar is the starting point of Dravidian movement says Dr. S.Rajendiran in his Doctorate thesis “ Tamizh Kavithaiyil Dravida Iyakathin Takkam”. Even during the Sangam age we can find the Aryan influence and infiltration into literary texts corrupting the original version. It is known as Idaiserugal. But only in the Pallava period Aryan influence got entrenched deeply. Separate housing colonies for Aryans thereby legitimizing the caste system led to the upward mobility in social ladder of the Aryan peoples. Dr.K.K.Pillai who wrote a book “ The Caste System In Tamil Nadu” holds the above said view.
The Pallavas imposed taxes on agriculturalists and traders but exempted the Aryans. Sekkukaranam [Tax for oil extraction] Thattarakaranam [Tax on Goldsmiths] Paraikaranam [Tax on Musicians] were professional taxes, which Brahmins need not pay. This is revealed by the reports of the Archaeological Survey of India E.I. Vol XXXVI.No.20. pp 144-163.
Kumarila Bhattar called Tamizh as mileccha bashai but the Tamil Thesauruses Nigandugal hit back by calling Aryans milechar. The opposition to Aryanism led to the birth of Saiva Sithantha, a philosophical school. Saivite mutts under Non Brahmin heads came into existence. The brahminical lobby vehemently opposed the Saivite mutts. The hymns of Appar, Sambandar, Sundarar, and Manicavasagar were eulogized as 4 Vedas. Nayanmars and Azhvars who initiated the worship of gods and goddesses through Tamil were the forerunners to the war against Sanskritisation. Thiruvaimozhi in later days is known as Dravida Vedham. So Dravidian Movement did not start in 20 th century as it is being said. The day when Aryans, their language Sanskrit was opposed in Tamil soil is the beginning of Dravidian Movement.
Thiruneelakanda Yazhpaanar could not gain entry into Sirkazhi temple and Thirugnanasambandar had to fight to get him entry, which also proves the growing influence of Aryans in temples. Nandanar after exhuming his body into flames to purify and after only he became a Brahmin then only his soul could enter Chidambaram Temple. Till date Tamil hymns are forbidden in Chidambaram temple for which Sivanadiyargal have to wage protests without securing the legitimate right. Puranas were written only to uphold Aryanism. Even Manicavasagar had to portray him as pulayan and god as Brahmin. All this shows the well-entrenched Aryan influence.
The Sitthars wrote strongly against Aryan influences. Thirumoolar’s famous quotable quote One god One creed is to denounce multiciplity of deities and caste differences. Sivavaikiyar, Bhathragiriyar, Bambatti sithar and all Sithars and their movement is a continuation of the Dravidian struggle against Aryans. Adiveerama Pandians verse that whomsoever it may be only the educated will be welcomed, indicates his resolve to deny the tenets of varnashradarma i.e. injustice based and perpetuated on caste basis.
After Sangam age the decline of Tamil started. Kalapirar and Pallavas gave importance to Prakritham. Vedic ideas had polluted Tamil minds by that time. The Bhakthi Movement that rose to challenge these tendencies gave impetus to Tamil language and Tamil religion. While Nayanmars and Azhvars revolted against Brahmins in Tamilnadu the people of North India too under the dynamic leadership of Lord Buddha and Mahaveer used peoples languages like Pali, Arthamagathi and Apiramisam which are offshoots of Prakiratham to register their protest against Sanskrit and Aryans.
The Saiva Sithantha and Saivite Mutts were direct challenge to the Brahmanism. Hence Brahmins were against these. These mutts educated the Tamils which could not be assimilated by the Aryans, who claimed that they only have the right to get education. In order to show their anger they instigated attack on the caves. Saivite mutts were operating from caves. The epigraphists of Tamilnadu have found references about the revolt to demolish caves. “ It is stated that in the 22 nd year of Periyathevar there was a general crusade against monasteries of this type when all the property of the monastery under reference was confiscated. Thiruchitrambala Mudaliar survived for 2 years after this event and died and Hridaya thevar i.e. Kulothunga Chozha III must have been instigated by the Brahmins against the Non-Brahminical Saiva Mutts”
Looking back at history we can give many such proofs of the Aryan- Dravidian struggle which till date continues. The Bhakthi Movement failed, Dravidian Movement felt that way in 20 th century and hence turned towards atheism. “ The Saiva Sithantha says Dr.Pope is the most elaborate, influential and undoubtedly the most valuable of all the religion of India. It is peculiarly the Southern Indian and Tamil religion and must be studied by everyone who hopes to understand and influence the great South Indian peoples.” Whatever is said harsh truth is all attempts by Sithar Movement and Bhakthi movement have failed to completely weed out Brahmanism and Aryan influences. Are we popularizing Sithar padalgal ? Have we won the right for Tamil only usage in temples?
Even Tamil mythology is different. “ Tamils have their own mythology… And Tamil puranas unlike the Sanskrit puranas are usually the concern of the authors whose historical existence seems likely, although the imagination has been allowed to run wild in this regard “ says Pierre Meile Larrousse in World Mythology.
There is distinct demarcation. There are different religions. There has been unending fight against Sanskrit and Brahmanism, but all the efforts of Sithars and Azhvars and Nayanmars have lost the purpose for which it came but legitimized Brahmanism. The word Sind got corrupted and became Hindu. If Indus civilization is Dravidian then the word that derived from the Indus River must point out only Dravidians. But the word had been hijacked by Aryans and brahmanical religion is portrayed as Hindu religion, why even religions that came out to protest Brahmanism like Sikhism , Buddhism and Jainism have been brought under Hindu fold creating the illusion of acceptance of the racial supremacy of the Aryans. Aryans had hijacked even Dravidian movement where a Brahmin lady and others diluting their ideology accommodating the Aryan supremacy head one outfit, thereby running successful business enterprises in politics. The Anti Hindi agitation is not an overnight revolution. It marks the continuing struggle for desanskritization. Languages elsewhere have assimilated with each other but in no other language the venom that one human is superior by birth to other is being translated into reflexes subjugating and denigrating human beings, hence Tamils are fighting for centuries. Other languages of the Dravidian family have developed a false notion as if they descended directly from heaven instead of branching out of Tamil. This mental framework also is the handiwork of Aryan influences and corruptive infiltration of Sanskrit into their tongues. In Nepal the Maoists fought for closure of Sanskrit schools which shows Dravidian movement not only exists in spirit here in Tamil soil but wherever human dignity is eroded by language, religious, ethnic supremacy the challenge to it will be automatic and unending. Dravida Peravai feels it is time to evaluate our past and chalk out our future plans in the light of our failures.
N.Nandhivarman General Secretary Dravida Peravai