On 6 March 1967, fifty-eight-year-old Conjeevaram Natarajan Annadurai became chief minister of Madras state, when his party, the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK), swept to power for the first time. Marking the pinnacle of his public life, it reflected his popularity among ordinary people who revered him as Anna, or elder brother. This rich biography illuminates his many lives—as a charismatic leader of modern India, as a stalwart of the Dravidian movement, as the founder of the DMK, as spokesman for the South—besides documenting his abilities as an acclaimed orator and littérateur in Tamil and English, and as a stage actor. Kannan draws on Anna’s considerable body of writing, the memoirs of other leaders and authors in Tamilto offer a warm and rounded portrait of a man who showed the way for the democratic expression of regional aspirations within a united India.


 R. Kannan practised law in Madras, and briefly also taught law at Madras Law College and international organizations at the University of Madras, where he was a guest faculty member. He has served in various capacities with the United Nations, including as head of Civil Affairs in Cyprus. Currently, he is a political officer with the United Nations Mission in Kosovo.

Buy the book online. The book Anna by R Kannan ISBN 9780670083282 is available at Rs 440, 20% discount and may qualify for free shipping anywhere in India. When you order the book Anna by R Kannan at, you are sure to receive a brand new copy and not an old copy or a used book.


Public Hearing on the proposed 2×500 MW Coal Based Power Plant

 by M/s. PEL Power Ltd took place on 28.10.2009 at                           

Keezhaprumballam Village, Sirkali Taluk, Nagapattinam Dt. But I had mailed to the The Collector of Nagapattinam District on  23.09.2009 itself when earliar hearing was slated but cancelled in eleventh hour.

Respected Collector

 Subject: Historical and Environmental reasons cited to oppose the proposed Thermal Power plant regarding

 We appreciate the District Collector of Nagapattinam for calling for this public enquiry. Our views will be in Tamil’s historical interest and the traditional rights of indigenous communities like fishermen and farmers of Tamilnadu.

Pichavaram to Kodikarai is highly important area for unearthing our civilization since ancient harbours existed in this belt with hidden heritage at sea. It needs to be subjected to researches   highly important for marine archaeology and coastal archaeology.

Already 250 km out of 1076 km of Tamilnadu coast is without fishermen. The need for preserving the catamaran people and their traditional knowledge is important. Hence all development projects must aim at protecting indigenous communities like fishermen and farmers and should not uproot them from where for centuries they made a livelihood. In fact more assistance to these communities with new scientific equipments would enable them to earn more foreign exchange to our country’s coffers than offering soaps at the cost of public exchequer to projects of plunder. Generating alternative renewable energy like ocean thermal energy, ocean tidal energy will be more helpful. Developed countries have bid adieu to thermal power. Coal bearing ships and conveyer arrangement will be hazard for the coastal area and will stimulate global warming through carbon discharge. The waste generated from plant will create pollution at sea .Thoothukudi lost its pearl culture of the past cultural heritage by the non ocean oriented people. Bearing these in mind we urge the Government of Tamilnadu to stall all thermal power projects coming up in Nagapattinam District, more particularly the one near Poompuhar.

▼ We all are aware that apart from the Indus Valley excavations, equally important cities of our ancient civilization could not so far be unearthed in South India due to our own lethargy. We have stone inscriptions, copper plates and burial pots and this is not sufficient to establish the greatness of our past. Our literary evidences on submergence of ancient Tamil land illuminate us about our past but western scholars look for more scientific proof. Hence there is a need for undersea-archaeological search to find out our roots. No other ethnic group of Earth possesses so much literary evidences but remains lazy to go to the submerged cities of their ancient land. Though we have a place named as Poompuhar where Dr.Kalaignar M.Karunanithi during his rule erected monuments to recapture the past, it could only serve as tourist spot and could not satiate a researcher’s quest to unravel a hidden city of our ancient civilization beneath the bowels of our sea in Bay of Bengal. We all know about the changes that continuously occur and the ancient Port City of Chozha Empire is not the Poompuhar of our times, but it is within the sea nearer or far to current Poompuhar’s coast.

▼ Graham Hancock wrote many books out of which Underworld: The Mysterious Origins of Civilization by Crown Publishers, New York 2002 containing 760 pages ISBN 1400046122 hardback priced $ 27.50 is of relevance to our Poompuhar. He undertook marine archaeology in 2002 and brought out as reported in Dinamani that a city with 9500 year old civilization remains hidden off coast of Poompuhar. [Dinamani news clipping enclosed] His earlier books Fingerprints of the Gods and Heaven’s Mirror had mentioned about his findings. But in this latest book, he lays out evidence “based on modern scientific research, comparative mythology, religious and spiritual observances, first hand diving exploration of underwater megalithic structures and ancient maps to demonstrate the likelihood that a technically advanced civilization unrecognized by modern science capable of navigating the globe and with a profound understanding of architecture and building existed and was washed out by global flooding”.

▼Inundation maps created by Dr.Glen Milne of Durham University shows vast tracts of mostly coastal land which were submerged by three waves of cataclysmic flooding between 17,000 and 8000 years ago. Nearly 5 percent of Earth’s surface or 25 million square kilometers of land stands submerged. These maps and other sources made Graham Hancock to set his foot in Tamilnadu. Graham Hancock used scuba diving and found many artifacts and evidences roughly 2000 pieces which he displayed in Bangalore exhibition, as per media reports of the day. Graham Hancock had updated Tamil history to 9500 years old.

▼We like parrots were repeating 2000 years as time limit of our ancient civilization, and when Graham Hancock updated Tamil history with fresh facts, the Government of Tamilnadu which is going to celebrate World Tamil Conference, must take pains to employ more scuba divers and marine archaeologists to find out about our Kaveripoompattinam. We should honour Graham Hancock in that Conference.

▼The coast or sea near Poompuhar should not be plundered and kept free from industrialization if our ancient glory brought out powerfully by Dr.Kalaignar had to be proven scientifically. Mr.Graham Hancock investigated about our “Kumari Kandam, an anti-diluvia civilization said to have existed thousands of years ago around South India. It is believed to have been a greater center of learning with magnificent academies which may have left a legacy of cartographic and astronomical knowledge which exists today in the ancient Indian texts. Interestingly the author spoke to local fishermen who described often diving to free their nets caught on underwater temples and columns, pyramidal pagodas and buildings with doorways”.

▼Coinciding to our Poompuhar, in Gulf of Cambay to city which is 7500 years old was found but media highlighted that and did not do justice to Poompuhar’s findings. If a scientist within few weeks with the help of National Institute of Oceanography could bring out so many artifacts, is it not the duty of Tamilnadu Chief Minister Dr.Kalaignar M.Karunanithi who instilled in our hearts the greatness of Poompuhar by his powerful pen to employ all scientists, marine archaeologists, scuba divers, and constitute a multi disciplinary State-Sponsored Task Force under Anna University and Tamil University of Thanjavur to explore our exclusive economic zone and our territorial waters in Bay of Bengal at least to begin with to pick up the thread from where Mr. Graham Hancock left in 2002.

▼▼ Dravida Peravai hence appeals to the District Collector of Nagapattinam in the public hearing on Public Hearing on the proposed 2×500 MW Coal Based Power Plant by M/s. PEL Power Ltd to stop this power project.  Allowing such plants to be set up here with whatever technology will disrupt the scientific and historical research that is needed to unearth our past beneath Bay of Bengal off Poompuhar. We are enclosing a map which shows how much land near our coast had been submerged.

This is an indication of how much more land would have been submerged for centuries running into thousands of years back. My article Save the Coast in New Indian Express is enclosed.Letting out effluents or dumping waste into rivers and seas had been going on unabated though technically they will promise to use clean technology and blinded by that promise our environmental agencies will give them clearance. First of all we should bear in mind what all technology we get is outmoded and unwanted in developed countries, hence such technologies are dumped on developing countries like India. If we are really a super power we should follow the Swedish precedent to completely abandon thermal power projects to save its environment. Here it is not only to save our environment but also to prove to the world we are an ancient civilization, we need to keep Poompuhar coast and seas close to Poompuhar free from industrial garbage and litter.

▼Coal based power projects are being set up in Tamilnadu coast. There seems to be a policy which permits setting up of power plants near coal mines, so that through National Power grid equivalant quantum of power can reach the power seeking State. Under this policy a current Union Minister of State before he came to power got a Coal Block allotted in Orissa.In this project of a Tamilnadu politician Puducherry Government’s PIPDIC is a partner. This joint venture plans to set up power project in Orissa to generate power and pass on to the grid so that Puducherry Government will get power without polluting the Union Territory of Puducherry. If a tiny state like Puducherry could follow this route, what compulsion prevails for Tamilnadu to bring coal all the way by ships to set up a power plant in the Nagapattinam coast that too near ancient Port city of Poompuhar?

▼ There seems to be a race to set up more and more ports without planning what products could be brought in or exported from these ports. The Former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee when he visited Kanyakumari announced a scheme called Sagar Mala, which means Garland of the Seas. In fact I mooted the suggestion to create a National Seaway on the lines of National Highways to introduce ship connectivity to all the 138 minor or intermediary ports to bring inland cargo that was coming by Lorries and to ferry passengers. This suggestion through Planning Commission reached then Prime Minister who wanted to make use of existing infrastructure to connect all ports in Indian coast. At that time only Gujarat particularly Gujarat Maritime Board was making good use of its minor ports. Tamilnadu which launched a Poompuhar Shipping Corporation under DMK rule lost the race by making its vessels ferry coal and did not think of diverting cargo and passengers from road use to sea lanes. Roads could be re-laid year by year but traffic congestion, loss of lives, making more and more lanes, land acquisition etc could be avoided if our existing ports could be connected under the Sagar mala scheme of Vajpayee. Instead opening new ports with no cargo to handle breeds even sand smuggling to Maldives which was caught red handed by you, the Hon’ble Collector. Hence we Dravida Peravai, a splinter of DMK but with great regard for Dr.Kalaignar in view of personal friendship undiminished by parting of ways, urge Nagapattinam to accord to priority to unearth our ancient city of Kaveripoompattinam and keep this coast free from polluting industrialization.

▼Interestingly the National Institute of Oceanography , Chennai had announced that its scientists in collaboration with Experimental Design Bureau of Oceanological Engineering of the Russian Academy of Sciences  had developed a vehicle named ROSUB 6000 capable of exploring the ocean up to a depth of 6 kilometers and can be remotely operated. Though we have to go further deep not only off the coast of Poompuhar but also even beyond our exclusive economic zone, this vehicle could be used to gather further evidences on our submerged Port City of Poompuhar.

 ▼International Seabed Authority has allocated 150,000 square kilometers of seabed in the Indian Ocean to India for exploration of cobalt, manganese, nickel and copper which are in the form of polymetalic nodules. Well Government of India will be happily exploring Indian Ocean for minerals and metals but let Government of Tamilnadu explore Indian Ocean to discover the lost continent of Kumari and the Port Cities of Chera, Chozha and Pandyas, including the ancient capitals of Thonmadurai and Kavadapuram which our literature speaks.

 With Regards Yours sincerely

 N.Nandhivarman  General Secretary Dravida Peravai

Dravidian Origins of Sanskrit

Dravidian Origin of Sanskrit

The Sanskrit language is highly respected in India. It carries the religion and culture of all the people of India. A.B. Keith, in A History of Sanskrit Literature (1928), makes it clear that Sanskrit was probably invented as early as the 6th Century BC. Although Sanskrit is recognized as a major language controversy surrounds its origin. Some researchers see it as language given to mankind by the Gods, while others see Sanskrit as an artificial language created to unify the diverse Indian nationalities. Keith in A History of Sanskrit Literature commenting on this state of affairs noted that: ” We must not. exaggerate the activity of the grammarians to the extent of suggesting. that Classical Sanskrit is an artificial creation, a product of the Brahmins when they sought to counteract the Buddhist creation of an artistic literature in Pali.. Nor.does Classical Sanskrit present the appearance of an artificial product; but rather admits exceptions in bewildering profusion, showing that the grammarians were not creators, but were engaged in a serious struggle to bring into handier shape a rather intractable material” (p.7).

Although, this is the opinion of Keith it appears that Sanskrit is lingua franca, an artificial language that was used by the people of India to unify the multi-lingual people of the India nation. This led Michael Coulson, in Teach Yourself Sanskrit 1992) to write “The advantage to using Sanskrit, in addition to the dignity which it imparted to the verse, lay in its role as a lingua franca uniting the various regions of Aryan India” (p.xviii).

As a result of its use as a lingua franca it has absorbed over the years many terms from various Indian languages. But at the base of Sanskrit we probably have a Dravidian language since Dravidian was spoken not only in the South, it was also the language of many Tribal groups in the North. The view that the Dravidian languages are the foundation of Sanskrit is supported by both Konow and Keith who noted that the auxiliary verbs, periphrastic future, and the participial forms in Sanskrit were probably of Dravidian origin. Stephan H. Levitt in a recent article in the International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics has suggested that Sanskrit may have adopted many North Dravidian forms. In addition, Levitt is sure that certain Sanskrit etyma for animals and plants that end in -l, are of Old Tamilian origin. Due to early Dravidian settlement in Northern India there is a Dravidian substratum in Indo-Aryan. There are Dravidian loans in the Rig Veda, even though Aryan recorders of this work were situated in the Punjab, which occupied around this time by the BRW Dravidians.

There are islands of Dravidian speakers in Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan. There are over 300,000 Brahui speakers in Qualat, Hairpur and Hyderabad districts of Pakistan. There are an additional 40,000 Brahui in Emeneau and Burrow (1962) found 500 Dravidian loan words in Sanskrit. In addition, Indo-Aryan illustrates a widespread structural borrowing from Dravidian in addition to 700 lexical loans (Kuiper 1967; Southward 1977; Winters 1989). Iran and several thousand along the southern border of Russia and Yugoslavia (ISDL 1983:227). Emeneau and Burrow (1962) have found 500 Dravidian loan words in Sanskrit. The number of Dravidian loans in Indo-Aryan is expected to reach 750.

There are numerous examples of Indo-Aryan structural borrowings from Dravidian. For example, the Bengali and Oriya plural suffix ra is analogous to the Tamil plural suffix ar. Both of these suffixes are restricted to names of intelligent beings. (Chatterji 1970:173) Oriya borrowed the ra plural suffix from the Dravidians. (Mahapatra 1983:67) The syntax of theIndo-Aryan languages is ambivalent because of the Dravidian influence on these languages. As a result, they represent both SOV and SVO traits. According to Arthur A. MacDonnell in A Sanskrit Grammar for Students (1997), says that the Sanskrit language is known by many names. It was called Nagari ‘urban writing’, Deva-nagari ‘city writing of the gods’. V. Kanakasabhai in the Tamils Eighteen Hundred Years Ago says that Sanskrit is called Deva-nagari, because the Nagas introduced it to the Aryas. The characters associated with Deva-nagari are the characters used to write Sanskrit today. The Naga were Semitic speaking people from Ethiopia. According to MacDonnell the Semitic writing was introduced to India around 700BC (pg.2).
Clyde Winters


The Aryan Dravidian Divide

The struggle between Sanskrit and Tamil which started during the times of Tamil grammarian Tholkappiyar [865 B.C] triggered a grammatical rule to eschew Sanskrit letters. This rule enunciated by Tholkappiyar is the starting point of Dravidian movement says Dr. S.Rajendiran in his Doctorate thesis “ Tamizh Kavithaiyil Dravida Iyakathin Takkam”. Even during the Sangam age we can find the Aryan influence and infiltration into literary texts corrupting the original version. It is known as Idaiserugal. But only in the Pallava period Aryan influence got entrenched deeply. Separate housing colonies for Aryans thereby legitimizing the caste system led to the upward mobility in social ladder of the Aryan peoples. Dr.K.K.Pillai who wrote a book “ The Caste System In Tamil Nadu” holds the above said view.

The Pallavas imposed taxes on agriculturalists and traders but exempted the Aryans. Sekkukaranam [Tax for oil extraction] Thattarakaranam [Tax on Goldsmiths] Paraikaranam [Tax on Musicians] were professional taxes, which Brahmins need not pay. This is revealed by the reports of the Archaeological Survey of India E.I. Vol XXXVI.No.20. pp 144-163.

Kumarila Bhattar called Tamizh as mileccha bashai but the Tamil Thesauruses Nigandugal hit back by calling Aryans milechar. The opposition to Aryanism led to the birth of Saiva Sithantha, a philosophical school. Saivite mutts under Non Brahmin heads came into existence. The brahminical lobby vehemently opposed the Saivite mutts. The hymns of Appar, Sambandar, Sundarar, and Manicavasagar were eulogized as 4 Vedas. Nayanmars and Azhvars who initiated the worship of gods and goddesses through Tamil were the forerunners to the war against Sanskritisation. Thiruvaimozhi in later days is known as Dravida Vedham. So Dravidian Movement did not start in 20 th century as it is being said. The day when Aryans, their language Sanskrit was opposed in Tamil soil is the beginning of Dravidian Movement.

Thiruneelakanda Yazhpaanar could not gain entry into Sirkazhi temple and Thirugnanasambandar had to fight to get him entry, which also proves the growing influence of Aryans in temples. Nandanar after exhuming his body into flames to purify and after only he became a Brahmin then only his soul could enter Chidambaram Temple. Till date Tamil hymns are forbidden in Chidambaram temple for which Sivanadiyargal have to wage protests without securing the legitimate right. Puranas were written only to uphold Aryanism. Even Manicavasagar had to portray him as pulayan and god as Brahmin. All this shows the well-entrenched Aryan influence.

The Sitthars wrote strongly against Aryan influences. Thirumoolar’s famous quotable quote One god One creed is to denounce multiciplity of deities and caste differences. Sivavaikiyar, Bhathragiriyar, Bambatti sithar and all Sithars and their movement is a continuation of the Dravidian struggle against Aryans. Adiveerama Pandians verse that whomsoever it may be only the educated will be welcomed, indicates his resolve to deny the tenets of varnashradarma i.e. injustice based and perpetuated on caste basis.

After Sangam age the decline of Tamil started. Kalapirar and Pallavas gave importance to Prakritham. Vedic ideas had polluted Tamil minds by that time. The Bhakthi Movement that rose to challenge these tendencies gave impetus to Tamil language and Tamil religion. While Nayanmars and Azhvars revolted against Brahmins in Tamilnadu the people of North India too under the dynamic leadership of Lord Buddha and Mahaveer used peoples languages like Pali, Arthamagathi and Apiramisam which are offshoots of Prakiratham to register their protest against Sanskrit and Aryans.

The Saiva Sithantha and Saivite Mutts were direct challenge to the Brahmanism. Hence Brahmins were against these. These mutts educated the Tamils which could not be assimilated by the Aryans, who claimed that they only have the right to get education. In order to show their anger they instigated attack on the caves. Saivite mutts were operating from caves. The epigraphists of Tamilnadu have found references about the revolt to demolish caves. “ It is stated that in the 22 nd year of Periyathevar there was a general crusade against monasteries of this type when all the property of the monastery under reference was confiscated. Thiruchitrambala Mudaliar survived for 2 years after this event and died and Hridaya thevar i.e. Kulothunga Chozha III must have been instigated by the Brahmins against the Non-Brahminical Saiva Mutts”

Looking back at history we can give many such proofs of the Aryan- Dravidian struggle which till date continues. The Bhakthi Movement failed, Dravidian Movement felt that way in 20 th century and hence turned towards atheism. “ The Saiva Sithantha says Dr.Pope is the most elaborate, influential and undoubtedly the most valuable of all the religion of India. It is peculiarly the Southern Indian and Tamil religion and must be studied by everyone who hopes to understand and influence the great South Indian peoples.” Whatever is said harsh truth is all attempts by Sithar Movement and Bhakthi movement have failed to completely weed out Brahmanism and Aryan influences. Are we popularizing Sithar padalgal ? Have we won the right for Tamil only usage in temples?

Even Tamil mythology is different. “ Tamils have their own mythology… And Tamil puranas unlike the Sanskrit puranas are usually the concern of the authors whose historical existence seems likely, although the imagination has been allowed to run wild in this regard “ says Pierre Meile Larrousse in World Mythology.

There is distinct demarcation. There are different religions. There has been unending fight against Sanskrit and Brahmanism, but all the efforts of Sithars and Azhvars and Nayanmars have lost the purpose for which it came but legitimized Brahmanism. The word Sind got corrupted and became Hindu. If Indus civilization is Dravidian then the word that derived from the Indus River must point out only Dravidians. But the word had been hijacked by Aryans and brahmanical religion is portrayed as Hindu religion, why even religions that came out to protest Brahmanism like Sikhism , Buddhism and Jainism have been brought under Hindu fold creating the illusion of acceptance of the racial supremacy of the Aryans. Aryans had hijacked even Dravidian movement where a Brahmin lady and others diluting their ideology accommodating the Aryan supremacy head one outfit, thereby running successful business enterprises in politics. The Anti Hindi agitation is not an overnight revolution. It marks the continuing struggle for desanskritization. Languages elsewhere have assimilated with each other but in no other language the venom that one human is superior by birth to other is being translated into reflexes subjugating and denigrating human beings, hence Tamils are fighting for centuries. Other languages of the Dravidian family have developed a false notion as if they descended directly from heaven instead of branching out of Tamil. This mental framework also is the handiwork of Aryan influences and corruptive infiltration of Sanskrit into their tongues. In Nepal the Maoists fought for closure of Sanskrit schools which shows Dravidian movement not only exists in spirit here in Tamil soil but wherever human dignity is eroded by language, religious, ethnic supremacy the challenge to it will be automatic and unending. Dravida Peravai feels it is time to evaluate our past and chalk out our future plans in the light of our failures.

N.Nandhivarman General Secretary Dravida Peravai